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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-7

Myopia: Etiology, epidemiology, and management strategy


Department of Optometry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan

Correspondence Address:
Yazan Sultan Gammoh
Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, P. O. Box 121, Amman
Jordan
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DOI: 10.4103/sjopthal.sjopthal_15_18

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Myopia, once seen as a simple refractive error where the image is focused in front of the retina, is now considered as an epidemic with projected estimates of half the world population becoming myopic by the year 2050. It has been shown that the prevalence of myopia is highest in Asian countries, while evidence in the Western world shows an increase in the prevalence of myopia, with a financial burden leading to uncorrected refractive errors including myopia being a major cause of avoidable vision impairment. Although no definite single cause of myopia has been proven, both hereditary factors and near work play a role in the development and progression of myopia. Inaccuracy of accommodation at near and hyperopic defocus at the periphery of the retina have been investigated as possible causes of myopia development, with research on animals providing an insight into the development of myopia in humans. Optical, pharmacological, and corneal reshaping strategies have been developed to control myopia progression with variable results. While undercorrection of myopes and correction with single vision lenses have not been proven to be effective in myopia management, other methods such as orthokeratology and use of atropine are showing evidence of controlling the progression of myopia.


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